Volume 51, Issue 1 p. 83-89

Antimicrobial potential of polyphenols extracted from almond skins

G. Mandalari

G. Mandalari

Pharmaco-Biological Department, University of Messina, Viale Annunziata, Messina, Italy

Model Gut Platform, Institute of Food Research, Norwich Research Park, Norwich, UK

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C. Bisignano

C. Bisignano

Pharmaco-Biological Department, University of Messina, Viale Annunziata, Messina, Italy

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M. D’Arrigo

M. D’Arrigo

Pharmaco-Biological Department, University of Messina, Viale Annunziata, Messina, Italy

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G. Ginestra

G. Ginestra

Pharmaco-Biological Department, University of Messina, Viale Annunziata, Messina, Italy

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A. Arena

A. Arena

Department of Surgical Science, Unit of Microbiology, University of Messina, Messina, Italy

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A. Tomaino

A. Tomaino

Pharmaco-Biological Department, University of Messina, Viale Annunziata, Messina, Italy

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M.S.J. Wickham

M.S.J. Wickham

Model Gut Platform, Institute of Food Research, Norwich Research Park, Norwich, UK

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First published: 09 June 2010
Citations: 37
Giuseppina Mandalari, Institute of Food Research, Norwich Research Park, NR4 7UA Norwich, UK. E-mail: [email protected]

Abstract

Aims: To evaluate the antimicrobial properties of flavonoid-rich fractions derived from natural and blanched almond skins, the latter being a by-product from the almond processing industry.

Methods and Results: Almond skin extracts were tested against Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enterica, Serratia marcescens), Gram-positive bacteria (Listeria monocytogenes, Enterococcus hirae, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus durans) and the yeast Candida albicans. Almond skin fractions were found to have antimicrobial activity against L. monocytogenes and Staph. aureus in the range 250–500 μg ml−1, natural skins showing antimicrobial potential against the Gram-negative Salm. enterica. The interactions between three almond skin flavonoids were also evaluated with isobolograms.

Conclusions: Pairwise combinations of protocatechuic acid, naringenin and epicatechin showed both synergistic and indifferent interactions against Salm. enterica and Staph. aureus. Antagonism was observed against L. monocytogenes with all combinations tested. Further studies need to be performed to understand the mechanisms responsible for these interactions.

Significance and Impact of the Study: Almond skins are a potential source of natural antimicrobials.